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More About Otorhinolaryngology Services from Wikipedia

(also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of skull, and for the surgical management of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck.


The term is a combination of New Latin classical compound (''wikt:oto-#Prefix'' + ''wikt:rhino-#Prefix'' + ''wikt:laryngo-#Prefix'' + ''wikt:-logy#Suffix'') derived from four Ancient Greek words: wikt:οὖς ''ous'' (Genitive case: ὠτός ''otos''), "ear", wikt:ῥίς ''rhis'', "nose", wikt:λάρυγξ ''larynx'', "larynx" and wikt:-λογία ''logia'', "study""otolaryngologist" entry in: Peter Harris, Sue Nagy, Nicholas Vardaxis, ''Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions - Australian & New Zealand Edition'', Elsevier Health Sciences, 2009. (cf. Greek ωτορινολαρυγγολόγος, "otorhinolaryngologist").


Otorhinolaryngologists are physicians (Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) who, in the United States, complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This is composed of six months of general surgery training and four and a half years in specialist surgery. In Canada and the United States, practitioners complete a five-year residency training after medical school.

Following residency training, some otolaryngologist-head & neck surgeons complete an advanced sub-specialty fellowship, where training can be one to two years in duration. In the United States and Canada, otorhinolaryngology is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine in which to obtain a residency position following medical school. The training programme consists of 6 years of higher surgical training after which trainees frequently undertake fellowships in a sub-speciality prior to becoming a consultant.


|- style="text-align:center; font-weight:bold; vertical-align:top;"
| style="width:117px; height:12.75;"| Head and Neck Oncologic Surgery
| style="width:100px;"| Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery
| style="width:43.5;"| Otology
| style="width:117px;"| Neurotology

| style="width:117px;"| Rhinology and Sinus Surgery
| style="width:68.25;"| Laryngology and Voice Disorders
| style="width:140.25;"| Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
| style="width:43.5;"| Sleep Medicine

|- style="text-align:center; vertical-align:top;"
| style="height:12.75;"| Surgical oncology
| Facial cosmetic surgery
| Ear
| Middle and inner ear
| Sinusitis
| Voice disorders
| Velopalatine insufficiency
|Sleep disorders
|- style="text-align:center; vertical-align:top;"
| style="height:12.75;"| Microvascular
| Maxillofacial surgery
| Hearing
| Temporal bone
| Allergy
| Phono-surgery
| Cleft lip and palate
|Sleep apnea surgery
|- style="text-align:center; vertical-align:top;"
| style="height:12.75;"| Endocrine surgery
| Traumatic reconstruction
| Balance

Skull base surgeryAnterior skull baseSwallowing disordersAirwaySleep investigations- style="text-align:center; vertical-align:top;"style="height:12.75;"Endoscopic Endonasal SurgeryEndoscopic SurgeryCraniofacial surgery
Apnea and snoring
Vascular malformations
- style="text-align:center; vertical-align:top;"
Cochlear implant/Bone-anchored hearing aidBAHA
Cochlear implant/BAHA

(* Currently recognized by American Board of Medical Subspecialties)


Head and neck oncology

  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx

  • Oral cancer

  • Skin cancer of the head & neck

  • Thyroid cancer

  • Endocrine surgery of the head and neck (thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy)

  • Microvascular free flap reconstruction

  • Skull base surgery

  • Salivary gland cancer

Otology and neurotology

  • Dizziness
    BPPV – benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
    Labyrinthitis/Vestibular neuronitis
    Ménière's disease/Endolymphatic hydrops
    Perilymphatic fistula
    ** Acoustic neuroma

  • Hearing loss

  • Mastoiditis

  • Otitis externaouter ear or ear canal inflammation

  • Otitis mediamiddle ear inflammation

  • Perforated eardrum (hole in the eardrum due to infection, trauma, explosion or loud noise)

  • Ear surgery


Rhinology includes nasal dysfunction and sinus diseases.

  • Nasal obstruction

  • Nasal septum deviation

  • Sinusitis – acute, chronic

  • Environmental allergies

  • Rhinitis

  • Pituitary tumor

  • Empty nose syndrome

  • Severe or recurrent epistaxis

Pediatric otorhinolaryngology

  • Adenoidectomy

  • Caustic ingestion

  • Cricotracheal resection

  • Decannulation

  • Laryngomalacia

  • Laryngotracheal reconstruction

  • Myringotomy

  • Obstructive sleep apnea – pediatric

  • Tonsillectomy


  • Dysphonia/hoarseness
    Reinke's edema
    ** Vocal fold nodule and Vocal cord polyp

  • Spasmodic dysphonia

  • Tracheostomy

  • Cancer of the larynx

  • Vocology – science and practice of voice habilitation

Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery

Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is a one-year fellowship open to otorhinolaryngologists and plastic surgeons who wish to specialize in the aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the head, face, and neck.

  • Rhinoplasty and septoplasty

  • Rhytidectomy (rhytidectomy)

  • Browlift

  • Blepharoplasty

  • Otoplasty

  • Genioplasty

  • Injectable cosmetic treatments

  • Physical trauma to the face
    Nasal bone fracture
    Human mandible fracture
    Orbital fracture
    Frontal Sinus (anatomy) fracture
    ** Complex lacerations and soft tissue damage

  • Skin cancer (e.g. Basal Cell Carcinoma)

See also

Learn more about Otorhinolaryngology Services: