Shopping is an activity in which a customer browses the available goods or services presented by one or more retailers with the potential intent to purchase a suitable selection of them. A Retail#Shopper profiles has been developed by scholars which identifies one group of shoppers as recreational shoppers,Durvasula, S., Lysonski, S. and Andrews, J.C. (1993), “Cross-cultural Generalizability of a Scale for Profiling Consumers’ Decision-making Styles”, ''The Journal of Consumer Affairs'', Vol. 27 No. 1, pp. 55–65; Sproles, G.B. (1985), “From Perfectionism to Fadism: Measuring Consumers’ Decision-making Styles”, in Schnittgrund, K.P. (Ed.), ''American Council on Consumer Interests (ACCI), Conference Proceedings'', Columbia, MO, pp. 79–85; Sproles, G. B.. "Conceptualisation and Measurement of Optimal Consumer Decision making," ''Journal of Consumer Affairs'', Vol. 17 No. 2, 1983, pp. 421–38; Mishra, A., "Consumer Innovativeness and Consumer Decision Styles: A Confirmatory and Segmentation Analysis," ''The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research'', Vol. 25, no. 1, 2015 Online: https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593969.2014.911199; Jain, R. and Sharma, A., "A Review on Sproles & Kendall's Consumer Style Inventory (CSI) for Analyzing Decision Making Styles of Consumers," ''Indian Journal of Marketing'', Vol. 43, no. 3, 2013; Sproles, G. B., & Kendall, E. L., "A Methodology for Profiling Consumers' Decision-making Styles," ''Journal of Consumer Affairs'', Vol., 20 No. 2, 1986, pp. 267–79 that is, those who enjoy shopping and view it as a leisure activity.Jones, C. and Spang, R., "Sans Culottes, Sans Café, Sans Tabac: Shifting Realms of Luxury and Necessity in Eighteenth-Century France," Chapter 2 in ''Consumers and Luxury: Consumer Culture in Europe, 1650-1850'' Berg, M. and Clifford, H., Manchester University Pres, 1999; Berg, M., "New Commodities, Luxuries and Their Consumers in Nineteenth-Century England," Chapter 3 in ''Consumers and Luxury: Consumer Culture in Europe, 1650-1850'' Berg, M. and Clifford, H., Manchester University Pres, 1999
Online shopping has become a major disruptor in the retail industry.Dennis, D., "Retail's Single Biggest Disruptor," ''Forbes, 12 June 2017; Online: https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevendennis/2017/06/12/retails-single-biggest-disruptor-spoiler-alert-its-not-e-commerce/#af35a92227b6; IbisWorld, "E-commerce Disruptors," 23 February 2015; Online: https://www.ibisworld.com/media/2015/02/23/ecommercedistruptors; "Disruptor of the Year 2016: Amazon," ''Campaign Live, 15 December 2015, https://www.campaignlive.com/article/disruptor-year-2016-amazon/1418737; Nielsen, "What's in-Store for Online Grocery Shopping," [Report], January, 2017, Online: http://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/nielsenglobal/de/docs/Nielsen%20Global%20Connected%20Commerce%20Report%20January%202017.pdf Consumers can now search for product information and place product orders across different regions while online retailers deliver their products directly to the consumers' home, offices or wherever they want. The B2C (business to consumer) process has made it easy for consumers to select any product online from a retailer's website and to have it delivered relatively quickly. Using online shopping methods, consumers do not need to consume energy by physically visiting physical stores, but save time and the cost of travelling. A retailer or a shop is a business that presents a selection of goods and offers to trade or sell them to customers for money or other goods.
Ancient Rome utilized a similar marketplace known as the forum (Roman). Rome had two forums; the Roman forum and Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market at Trajan's forum, built around 100-110CE, was a vast expanse, comprising multiple buildings with tabernae that served as retail shops, situated on four levels.Coleman, P., ''Shopping Environments,'' Elsevier, Oxford, 2006, p. 28 The Roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shopfront. In the Roman world, the central market primarily served the local peasantry. Those who lived on the great estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates, obviating their need to attend local markets.Bintliff, J., "Going to Market in Antiquity," In ''Stuttgarter Kolloquium zur Historischen Geographie des Altertums,'' Eckart Olshausen and Holger Sonnabend (eds), Stuttgart, Franz Steiner, 2002, p. 229
Archaeological evidence suggests that the British engaged in minimal shopping in the early Middle Ages. Instead, they provided for their basic needs through subsistence farming practices and a system of localised personal exchanges.Schofield, J. and Vince, A.G., ''Medieval Towns: The Archaeology of British Towns in Their European Setting,''A&C Black, 2003, p.151 However, by the late Middle Ages, consumers turned to markets for the purchase of fresh produce, meat and fish and the periodic fairs where non-perishables and luxury goods could be obtained.Dye, C., ''Everyday Life in Medieval England,'' A & C Black, 2001, p.257 Women were responsible for everyday household purchases, but most of their purchasing was of a mundane nature. For the main part, shopping was seen as a chore rather than a pleasure.By Jane Whittle, Elizabeth GriffithsConsumption and Gender in the Early Seventeenth-Century Household: The World of Alice Le Strange,'' Oxford University Press, 2012, pp 9- 11
Relatively few permanent shops were to be found outside the most populous cities. Instead customers walked into the tradesman's workshops where they discussed purchasing options directly with tradesmen.Thrupp, S.L., ''The Merchant Class of Medieval London, 1300–1500,'' pp. 7–8 Itinerant vendors such as costermongers, hucksters and peddlers operated alongside markets, providing the convenience of home delivery to households, and especially to geographically isolated communities.Jones, P.T.A., "Redressing Reform Narratives: Victorian London's Street Markets and the Informal Supply Lines of Urban Modernity," ''The London Journal'', Vol 41, No. 1, 2006, pp 64–65
In the more populous European cities, a small number of shops were beginning to emerge by the 13th century. Specialist retailers such as mercers and haberdashers were known to exist in London, while grocers sold "miscellaneous small wares as well as spices and medicines." However, these shops were primitive. As late as the 16th century, London's shops were described as little more than "rude booths." Knight, C., ''London,'' Vol. 5, 1841, Knight & Co, London, p. 132
The Medieval shopper's experience was very different from that of the contemporary shopper. Interiors were dark and shoppers had relatively few opportunities to inspect the merchandise prior to consumption. Glazed windows in retail environments, were virtually unknown during the medieval period. Goods were rarely out on display; instead retailers kept the merchandise at the rear of the store and would only bring out items on request. The service counter was virtually unknown and instead, many stores had openings onto the street from which they served customers.Cox, N.C. and Dannehl, K., ''Perceptions of Retailing in Early Modern England,'' Aldershot, Hampshire, Ashgate, 2007, p. 155
In Britain, medieval attitudes to retailing and shopping were negative. Retailers were no better than hucksters, because they simply resold goods, by buying cheaper and selling dearer, without adding value of national accounts. Added to this were concerns about the self-interest of retailers and some of their more unethical practices. Attitudes to spending on luxury goods also attracted criticism, since it involved importing goods which did little to stimulate national accounts, and interfered with the growth of worthy local manufacturers.Cox, N., "'Beggary of the Nation': Moral, Economic and Political Attitudes to the Retail Sector in the Early Modern Period", in: John Benson and Laura Ugolini, ''A Nation of Shopkeepers: Five Centuries of British Retailing'', London, I.B. Taurus, 2003, pp 25-51
The modern phenomenon of shopping for pleasure is closely linked to the emergence of a middle class in the 17th and 18th-century Europe. As standards of living improved in the 17th century, consumers from a broad range of social backgrounds began to purchase goods that were in excess of basic necessities. An emergent middle class or bourgeosie stimulated demand for luxury goods and began to purchase a wider range of luxury goods and imported goods, including: Indian cotton and calico; silk, tea and porcelain from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World.Braudel, F. and Reynold, S., ''The Wheels of Commerce: Civilization and Capitalism, 15th to 18th Century,'' Berkely, CA, University of California Press, 1992 The act of shopping came to be seen as a pleasurable pass-time or form of entertainment.
By the 17th-century, produce markets gradually gave way to shops and shopping centres; which changed the consumer's shopping experience.Cox, N.C. and Dannehl, K., ''Perceptions of Retailing in Early Modern England,'' Aldershot, Hampshire, Ashgate, 2007, p,. 129 The New Exchange, opened in 1609 by Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury in the Strand, London was one such example of a planned shopping centre. Shops started to become important as places for Londoners to meet and socialise and became popular destinations alongside the theatre. English Restoration London also saw the growth of luxury buildings as advertisements for social position with speculative architects like Nicholas Barbon and Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex.
Much pamphleteering of the time was devoted to justifying conspicuous consumption and private vice for luxury goods for the greater public good. This then scandalous line of thought caused great controversy with the publication of Bernard Mandeville's influential work ''Fable of the Bees'' in 1714, in which he argued that a country's prosperity ultimately lay in the self-interest of the consumer.Peck, Linda, "Consuming Splendor: Society and Culture in Seventeenth-Century England", Cambridge Press, 2005; Gunor, B., "A Research Regarding the Importance of Bernard Mandeville's Article: The Fable of Bees," ''Journal of Art and Language," Vol. 5, pp 521-536, 10.7816/idil-05-22-01
These trends gathered momentum in the 18th century, as rising prosperity and social mobility increased the number of people with disposable income for consumption. Important shifts included the marketing of goods for individuals as opposed to items for the household, and the new status of goods as status symbols, related to changes in fashion and desired for aesthetic appeal, as opposed to just their utility. The pottery inventor and entrepreneur, Josiah Wedgewood, pioneered the use of marketing techniques to influence and manipulate the direction of the prevailing tastes.
Retailers designed attractive shop fronts to entice patronage, using bright lights, advertisements and attractively arranged goods. The goods on offer were in a constant state of change, due to the frenetic change in fashions. A foreign visitor commented that London was "a world of gold and silver plate, then pearls and gems shedding their dazzling lustre, home manufactures of the most exquisite taste, an ocean of rings, watches, chains, bracelets, perfumes, ready-dresses, ribbons, lace, bonnets, and fruits from all the zones of the habitable world".
In the second half of the 19th-century, shops transitioned from 'single-function' shops selling one type of good, to the department store where a large variety of goods were sold. As economic growth, fueled by the Industrial Revolution at the turn of the 19th-century, steadily expanded, the affluent bourgeois middle-class grew in size and wealth. This urbanized social group was the catalyst for the emergence of the retail revolution of the period.
The term, "department store," originated in America. In 19th century England, these stores were known as emporia or warehouse shops.Koot, G.M.,"Shops and Shopping in Britain: from market stalls to chain stores," University of Dartmouth, 2011, <Online: https://www1.umassd.edu/ir/resources/consumption/shopping.pdf> A number of major department stores opened across the USA, Britain and Europe from the mid nineteenth century including; Harrod's of London in 1834; Kendall's in Manchester in 1836; Selfridges of London in 1909; Macy's of New York in 1858; Bloomingdale's in 1861; Sak's Fifth Avenue in 1867; J.C. Penney in 1902; Le Bon Marché of France in 1852 and Galeries Lafayette of France in 1905.
The first reliably dated department store to be established, was Harding, Howell & Co, which opened in 1796 on Pall Mall, London, London. This venture was described as being a public retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different departments. This pioneering shop was closed down in 1820 when the business partnership was dissolved. Department stores were established on a large scale from the 1840s and 50s, in France, the United Kingdom and the US. French retailer, Le Bon Marche, is an example of a department store that has survived into current times Originally founded in 1838 as a lace and haberdashery store, it was revamped mid-century and opened as a department store in 1852.Jacques Marseille,"Naissance des grands magasins: Le Bon Marché," Ministry of Culture of France, <Online: http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/actualites/celebrations2002/bonmarche.htm (in French)
Many of the early department stores were more than just a retail emporium; rather they were venues where shoppers could spend their leisure time and be entertained. Some department stores offered reading rooms, art galleries and concerts. Most department stores had tea-rooms or dining rooms and offered treatment areas where ladies could indulge in a manicure. The fashion show, which originated in the US in around 1907, became a staple feature event for many department stores and celebrity appearances were also used to great effect. Themed events featured wares from foreign shores, exposing shoppers to the exotic cultures of the Orient and Middle-East.Howard Moss, M., ''Shopping as an Entertainment Experience,'' Plymouth, Lexington Books, pp. 35–39
The first modern shopping mall in the US was The Country Club Plaza in Kansas City which opened in 1922, from there the first enclosed mall was designed by Victor [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-GruenVic.html Gruen] and opened in 1956 as Southdale Center in Edina, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. Malls peaked in America in the 1980s-1990s when many larger malls (more than 37,000 sq m in size) were built, attracting consumers from within a 32 km radius with their luxurious department stores.
Different types of malls can be found around the world. ''Super-regional mall'' are very large malls that contain at least five department stores and 300 shops. This type of mall atrracts consumers from a broad radius (up to a 160-km). A ''regional mall'' can contain at least two department stores or "anchor stores". The smaller malls are often called open-air strip centres or mini-marts and are typically attached to a grocery store or supermarket. The smaller malls are less likely to include the same features of a large mall such as an indoor concourse, but are beginning to evolve to become enclosed to comply with all weather and customer preferences.
Some shops sell secondhand goods. Often the public can also sell goods to such shops. In other cases, especially in the case of a nonprofit shop, the public donates goods to these shops, commonly known as thrift stores in the United States, charity shops in the United Kingdom, or op shops in Australia and New Zealand. In give-away shops goods can be taken for free. In antique shops, the public can find goods that are older and harder to find. Sometimes people are broke and borrow money from a pawn shop using an item of value as Collateral (finance). College students are known to resell books back through college textbook bookstores. Old used items are often distributed through surplus stores.
Various types of retail stores that specialize in the selling of goods related to a theme include bookstores, boutiques, confectionery stores, liquor stores, gift shops, hardware stores, hobby stores, pet stores, pharmacy, sex shops and supermarkets.
Other stores such as big-box stores, hypermarkets, convenience stores, department stores, general stores, dollar stores sell a wider variety of products not horizontal market related to each other.
Neighbourhood shopping areas and retailers give value to a community by providing various social and community services (like a library), and a social place to meet. Neighbourhood retailing differs from other types of retailers such as destination retailers because of the difference in offered products and services, location and popularity. Neighbourhood retailers include stores such as; Food shops/marts, dairies, Pharmacy, Dry cleaning, Hairdressers/barbers, Liquor store, Coffeehouse and Take-out shops . Destination retailers include stores such as; Gift shops, Antique shops, Pet groomers, Engraving, Tattoo artist, Local bike shop, Herbal dispensary clinics, Art museum, Office Supplies and framers. The neighbourhood retailers sell essential goods and services to the residential area they are located in. There can be many groups of neighbourhood retailers in different areas of a region or city, but destination retailers are often part of shopping malls where the numbers of consumers is higher than that of a neighbourhood retail area. The destination retailers are becoming more prevalent as they can provide a community with more than the essentials, they offer an experience, and a wider scope of goods and services.
Some religions regard such spending seasons as being against their faith and dismiss the practice. Many contest the over-commercialization and the response by stores that downplay the shopping season often cited in the Christmas controversy.
The National Retail Federation (NRF) also highlights the importance of back-to-school shopping for retailers which comes second behind holiday shopping, when buyers often buy clothing and school supplies for their children. The end-of-season sales usually last a few weeks with prices lowering further towards the closing of the sale. During sales items can be discounted from 10% up to as much as 50%, with the biggest reduction sales occurring at the end of the season. Holiday shopping periods are extending their sales further and further with holidays such as Black Friday (shopping) becoming a month-long event stretching promotions across November . These days shopping doesn't stop once the mall closes, as people have more access to stores and their sales than ever before with the help of the internet and apps. Shoppers are now spending more time consulting different sources before making a final purchasing decision. Shoppers once used an average of five sources for information before making a purchase, but numbers have risen to as high as 12 sources in 2014.
Historically, prices were established through a system of barter or negotiation. The first retailer to adopt fixed prices is thought to be the retailers operating out of the Palais-Royal complex in the 18th-century. These retailers adopted a system of high price maintenance in order to cultivate images of luxury. For their upper class clientele, fixed prices spared them from hassle of bartering.Byrne-Paquet, L., ''The Urge to Splurge: A Social History of Shopping,'' ECW Press, Toronto, Canada, pp. 90–93
The pricing technique used by most retailers is ''cost-plus pricing''. This involves adding a markup (business) amount (or percentage) to the retailers' cost. Another common technique is ''suggested retail price'' pricing. This simply involves charging the amount suggested by the manufacturer and usually printed on the product (business) by the manufacturer.
In retail settings, ''psychological pricing'' or ''odd-number pricing'' are both widely used. Psychological pricing which refers to a range of tactics, designed to have a positive psychological impact. For example, price tags using the terminal digit "9" (e.g., 9.99, 19.99, or 199.99) can be used to signal price points and bring an item in at just under the consumer's reservation price.Poundstone, W., ''Priceless: The Myth of Fair Value (and How to Take Advantage of It),'' NY, Hill and Wang, 2011, pp. 184–200 However, in Chinese societies, prices are generally either a round number or sometimes some lucky number. This creates price points.
In a fixed-price system, consumers may still use bargaining or ''haggling''; a negotiation about the price. Economists see this as determining how the transaction's total economic surplus will be divided between consumers and producers. Neither party has a clear advantage because the threat of no sale exists, in which case the surplus would vanish for both.
When online shopping, it can be more difficult to negotiate price given that you are not directly interacting with a sales. Some consumers use price comparison services to locate the best price and/or to make a decision about who or where to buy from to save money.