Landscape lighting or garden lighting refers to the use of outdoor lighting of private gardens and public landscapes; for the enhancement and purposes of safety, nighttime aesthetics, accessibility, security, recreation and sports, and social and event uses.
The public landscape
s have been Lighting
for as long as interior building
have - for beauty, security, Circulation (architecture)
, and social occasions; since ancient times by firelight from wood, candle
s, and animal-plant oil
fells in torch
es, Sconce (light fixture)
s. Since the 17th century's introductions of new interior illumination fuels, the technology has then been used outdoors and in gardens. As systems were developed for power delivery, Gas lighting
of the 19th century and electric light
of the 20th century became part of exterior functioning and design.
[The Landscape Lighting Book -?---> With the combination of increasing demand for more efficient lighting, increasing availability of sustainable designs, global warming considerations, and aesthetic and safety concerns in garden design and landscape design the methods and equipment of outdoor illumination have been evolving. The increasing use of LEDs, solar power, low voltage fixtures, energy efficient lamps, and energy-saving lighting design are examples of innovation in the field.]
Landscape lighting can be powered by:
- Conventional electricity-based fixtures: Fixed post, wall-mounted, free-hanging, in-grade, tree-mounted, stake-mounted, stationary, and movable
Line voltage: 120V - light bulbs, compact fluorescent lamps, custom neon lamps
Extra-low voltage: 12V - light bulbs, fiber optics
- Solar source electricity based fixtures:
On each fixture - photovoltaics - light bulbs
From property's solar panel system - lighting fixtures, fiber optics
- Rechargeable battery electrical battery fixtures: Table top lanterns, LED candles
Natural gas - fixed post lamps and wall lanterns, flex-connection fixtures
Propane - table top portable lanterns, flex-connection fixtures
Oil fuels - hurricane lamps, 'camping lanterns'
Fire-based flame - pernazzle lanterns, outdoor fireplaces, chimineas, fire bowls, "tiki-torches"
There are many different types of landscape lighting systems, controls and switching, wiring connections, fixture types, functions-purposes-styles, and light sources.
:Components can include:
connection to main property power source (''code and permit determined'')
Transformers (12v and multi-tap transformers)
Light sensor switching (photocells)
motion sensor switching
Manual 'light switches'
automated light switching units-systems
remote lighting switching - on-property devices, off-site phone or online systems
- Electric wiring
Electrical conduit - underground for Mains electricity, vulnerable locations, under or in constructed elements-Road surface
cable, wire - underground per codes for line and low voltage, above ground at stake-mounted and tree mounted fixtures.
- Light fixtures - fixed location - Mains electricity (120V U.S.) and low voltage (12V U.S.)
Post mount - column mount
Ceiling mount - hanging fixture
Tree lights - up and down lights
In-grade fixtures- uplights buried in-ground - top flush with surface
Adjustable aim "bullet" - uplight
sports court lights - i.e.: tennis courts
portable fixtures "hard-wired" or "plug-in" 'wet location rated' interior style fixtures
** string lighting - "holiday lights" - bulbs and LED
- Light fixtures - low voltage (12V U.S.) - modest location adjustments
uplights (directional, spot, and flood lights)- stake mount
wall lights - surface mount
tree-mount lights - down lights
deck lights - surface mount
well lights - mounted below grade
hardscape lights- integrated into walls.
step lights - recessed into catherine risers
rope lighting - fiber optics
MR16 - 10w, 20w, 35w, 50w. Come in a variety of beam angles from narrow spot (12 degrees, spot 24 degrees, flood 36 degrees, wide flood 60 degrees).
Bi Pin - 10w, 20w, 35w, 50w. G4 and G5.3 pin configurations
PAR36 - 20w, 35w, 50w
Single Contact Bayonet (SCB)
LED MR16 (retrofit lamp)
LED Bi Pin
Integrated LED Lamps - LED chips and driver are built into the fixture (permanently)
- Water features
constructed streams and waterfalls
- Light sources - underwater
fixed mount fixtures - i.e.: pool wall light
fiber optic lights
floating fixture lights - rechargeable battery & solar photovoltaic
- ''The Landscape Lighting Book''; Janet Lennox Moyer; John Wiley and Sons; 2013; .